Cariboo - Fraser Fort George

Timothy

Timothy is a widely adapted, cool season perennial bunchgrass. It is considered hardy and reliable, but does not tolerate drought well.

Roots are wide spreading, shallow and fibrous with heaviest concentration of roots within top 7.5 cm (3 in.) of soil. Swollen bulbs or corms develop just below the surface and store nutrients for winter survival and regrowth after cutting or grazing.

It has strong tall stems up to 120 cm (47 in.) tall. Leaves are hairless and rolled during the bud stage. They are relatively wide, up to 12 mm, and flat.

Canada Wildrye

Canada wildrye is a tall, tufted, cool season, perennial bunchgrass. It is also known as nodding wildrye in some areas.

It grows from a deep, spreading root system, occasionally with short rhizomes.

Erect and leafy hollow stems grow to 60 to 150 cm (24 to 59 in.) in height. Leaf blades are flat and wide, waxy green, and sometimes curled. Its seed heads self-pollinate, with some cross-pollination.

Smooth Bromegrass

Smooth bromegrass is a high-yielding, cold hardy, long-lasting, creeping perennial grass. Roots are deep, fibrous, and very fine. Once established it grows creeping rhizomes and can become root bound.

Stems can reach as high as 1.2 m (48 in.) in height. Leaf blades are rolled, hairless, large and wide, up to 1.5 cm (1/2 in.). There is often a “W” constriction in the upper leaf.

Fowl Bluegrass

Fowl bluegrass is a loosely tufted, low growing, native, cool season, perennial bunchgrass. It is commonly a minor component in native grass seed mixes. It has fibrous roots and a tufted bunchgrass growth habit, but can form a weak sod. It grows 40 to 122 cm (16 to 48 in.) tall. Stems are erect, purplish, and curved at the base. The leaves are greenish, flat or folded, and 1.5 to 3 mm wide with boat or keel-shaped tips. The tiny flowers of fowl bluegrass are produced in mid-spring and are yellow.

Redtop

Redtop is a long-lived, perennial tufted grass with common names like bentgrass or ticklegrass. Several closely related species of this bentgrass group are discussed in the literature including redtop (Agrostis gigantea Roth or Agrostis stolonifera - introduced), and hair bentgrass (Agrostis scabra - native). The common name ticklegrass can refer to any of these species. Redtop was introduced and has become naturalized throughout British Columbia. It is abundant following disturbance, especially in the northeastern part of British Columbia.

Tall Wheatgrass

Tall wheatgrass is a long-lived, tall, perennial bunchgrass introduced to North America from Russia. It is often used for rehabilitation of saline areas. It has an extensive fibrous root system that can grow 300 cm (118 in.) into the soil. Plants form a “bunch” that increases in size with age.

Stems are coarse and grow 100 to 300 cm tall (39 to 118 in.). Leaves are 2 to 6.5 mm with short hairs that make them scratchy to the touch.

Hairy Vetch

Hairy vetch is an annual or biennial, hardy, cool season agronomic legume, also commonly referred to as fodder vetch, winter vetch, or sand vetch. It has a weak tap root that grows up to 60 to 90 cm (24 to 35 in.) with many side branches in the top 20 cm (8 in.), and is known as an excellent nitrogen fixer.

Hairy vetch has long trailing stems from 50 to 200 cm (20 to 79 in.) long. Stems are hairy and grow 1 to 3 cm (1/2 to 1 ¼ in.)long leaves on one side of the stem. There are 10 to 20 alternate, oblong leaflets per leaf, with branching tendrils at the ends.

Western Wheatgrass

Western wheatgrass is a native cool-season perennial grass that grows from conspicuous white rhizomes, and is strongly rhizomatous. Western wheatgrass is a sub-dominant in plant communities with bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue, and is dominant on many sites on mixed-grass prairie east of the Rockies. On clay sites it is usually found with green needlegrass (Nassella viridula (Trin.) Barkworth - syn. Stipa viridula).

Sainfoin

Sainfoin is a drought tolerant, relatively short-lived, deep-rooted, non-bloating perennial legume. It can be useful in grazing systems because it is non-bloating and maintains good forage quality for late-season grazing or stockpiling. It may have a place in site rehabilitation and reclamation situations as it will grow on high pH, alkaline, thin, or gravelly soils. It is resistant to several diseases that threaten alfalfa productivity.

Tufted Hairgrass

Tufted hairgrass is a short-lived, tufted, cool season, native perennial bunchgrass. Roots are shallow, fibrous, and dense. A mass of deep green leaves covers the crown. Densely tufted and with numerous stems, this native grass is found throughout British Columbia. Seed production is important for stand maintenance. It is valuable as a range grass and fairly resistant to close grazing.

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